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Autism spectrum disorder

ASD is a complex neurodevelopmental condition caused by interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Recently, maternal viral infections during pregnancy and their immunological consequences have received particular interest in research as risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. 


Active research and clinical experience have shown that the uncontrolled immune response to Sars-Cov-2 is characterized in many cases by a devastating cytokine storm (Chaolin Huang 2020). Morbidity and mortality are in part a consequence of this inflammatory response in the body (Ye Q 2020). The course of the disease is known to be more severe in pregnant women (Kathryn M Moore 2021), however, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the developing fetus is currently unclear. Case studies show that vertical transmission is rare, however, several studies support that placental and fetal infections may occur (Chen H 2020), (Dong L 2020), (Patanè L 2020). Several clinical manifestations of Covid-19 infection in the nervous system have also been reported recently (Desforges M. 2020), (Bohmwald K. 2018). 

MPTP induced Pakinson model

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative condition; characterized with the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and neuroinflammation. 

Major depression

Depression - diagnosed as a condition lasting at least 2 weeks, with lethargy and/or loss of pleasure as the leading symptoms - is the most common psychiatric disorder in the world.

Mania model

Purinergic dysfunction are involved in the pathological process of mania and depression, but the essential association is not fully understood. The activation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays a central role in inflammation, microglia activation and IL-1β release and activates NLRP3 inflammasome. We investigated whether the d-amphetamine (AMPH) has an inflammatory profile, and the P2X7R has an effect via IL-1β in this model.


Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately 0.5%–1% of the global population and is 1 of the top 10 global causes of disability.  Like most mental disorders, schizophrenia appears to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and social risk factors linked to each other by epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression levels and molecular pathways. . Although the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is still not completely understood, there is a growing awareness that dysregulation of immune system components is fundamentally linked to the disorder.