Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately 0.5%–1% of the global population and is 1 of the top 10 global causes of disability.  Like most mental disorders, schizophrenia appears to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and social risk factors linked to each other by epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression levels and molecular pathways. . Although the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is still not completely understood, there is a growing awareness that dysregulation of immune system components is fundamentally linked to the disorder.  

In our previous study (Zsüliet Kristof et al, 2022, International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology) we found consistently elevated levels of ATP, ADP, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 in both schizophrenia groups compared with the controls. The levels of adenosine, IL-1β, IL-12, and C-reactive protein were also increased in the human patient samples. Moreover, ATP and ADP were significantly positively correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale item “lack of judgment and insight”; IL-1β, IL-12, and tumour necrosis factor alpha were significantly positively correlated with “tension” and “depression”; and “disorientation” and “poor attention” were correlated significantly with IL-6 and IL-8.

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